Lieux et formes de pouvoir / Places and Forms of Power : Religion in the USA - Anglais - Terminale STMG

Lieux et formes de pouvoir / Places and Forms of Power : Religion in the USA - Anglais - Terminale STMG

digiSchool Bac STMG met à votre disposition ce document d'Anglais sur la religion aux Etats-Unis. Il vous sera utile pour l'oral d'anglais sur le thème "Lieux et formes de pouvoir" (Places and forms of power).

Vous étudierez la place des religions aux Etats-Unis dans la société et leurs évolutions au fil du temps.

Téléchargez gratuitement ci-dessous ce cours d'Anglais sur le thème "Lieux et formes de pouvoir" (Places and forms of power) consacré à la religion aux Etats-Unis.

Lieux et formes de pouvoir / Places and Forms of Power : Religion in the USA - Anglais - Terminale STMG

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Places and forms of power - Religion in the USA - Anglais Bac

“In God We trust’’ is the American motto adopted in 1856. 

Since the twentieth century, this country considered as one of the most modern one owns a very disturbed history of religion with a society based on faith.

71% of American have declared that they believe in God and numerous religious branches coexist.

For many it is a power that can not be deprived of its strength and its achievements, for others it is a counterpower that can stop humans to drown into madness.

Lieux et formes de pouvoir - Religion aux USA - Anglais Bac

Religion is organized round a system of beliefs and practises of a group which implies relationships with a higher power and which orders to its faithful people obedience and respect.

The USA will undergo various period of awakening.

From 1890 to nowadays we may wonder if the evolution of religion is leading to unity or to division?

Between 1890 and 1960 religion became more modern with the birth of different branches and the union of different communities.

Religion is representing an important part of what is called the American way of life.

It is an absolute link between communities, the sense of belonging is developped and people are anxious not te be a part of it.

De 1890 à nos jours, l’évolution de la religion dans la société américaine est-elle un facteur d’unité ou de division ?

Nous verrons dans un premier temps que la religion s’est modernisé entre 1890 et 1960 avec la naissance de division mais aussi de l’union de divers fidèles. Puis dans un second temps, nous verrons que la religion fait partie de l’American Way of Life de 1960 à nos jours et contribue à unir les Américains autour de la foi.

As soon as 1890, the USA faced a new immigration wage coming from Southern Europe and from Eastern Europe.

Very often the arriving migrants were poor and from different religions. Groups were born in order to influence these migrants to convert themselves.

The most famous one was the KKK a racist and supremacist organization in 1915 which was influencing people to intimidate and kill black people, they used violence, murder and fear to promote their faith. Years later the KKK fought against new non- protestant migrants. For them to be a good american you had to belong to the WASP (white anglo-saxon protestant ).

Places and forms of power : ku klux klan - Anglais Bac

Later on, public opinion tried to stop the arrival of migrants with the quota laws. According to their origins, only a certain amount of migrants could be accepted on the american soil.

Lieux et formes de pouvoir : Religion - Anglais Bac

America was mostly protestant and in the first amendement of the constitution it is clearly stated that Congress will not issued a law which will stop or forbid the free expression of a religion.

Lieux et formes de pouvoir : Bible - Anglais Bac

The separation betwen the federal governement and church is clearly respected.

As soon as the the 1920s, new non-protestant religions coming from Europe settled in the USA (jewish, christians, catholics), WASP defenders were scared by their vision of democracy. They believed these new religions could have a perverted long effect on America’s religion.

At the beginning of 1910 many branches appeared. Indeed there were methodists, baptists, presbyterians, lutherians. There was also an important contrast between North and South.

Places and forms of power : Bible Belt - Anglais Bac

Indeed, religion is more important in Alabama or in Lousiana with the Bible belt and megachurches which gather more than 20 000 every week.

New rejections appeared with urbanization and laïcization. This movement allows to go from one society which is under a religious pressure  to discover a new one where people and institutions are open minded and not afraid to live with one another..

This modern process is developping itself and The USA become more divided than ever. 

Some defend a very strict interpretation of the bible. It was the case between 1919 and 1933 because of prohibition. With the ban of alcohol people were fighting the democratic ideas proposed in Europe. 

American society had to face a major division and this division was kept alive by gangsters such as AL Capone and by people who were afraid of going back to a dark period.

Lieux et formes de pouvoir : Al Capone - Oral Bac Anglais

A calling to question of the darwinian theory appeared. 

A clear gap between a modern American and a more agricultural one appeared.  

In the twenties the consumption society appeared and it replaced little by little a society based on religion.

But it is obvious that nowadays when people talk about the land of freedom they are much more talking about democracy and a free market than of religion. They think of opportunity and individualism , but the first migrants centuries before were only looking for a religious freedom. The first American Dream was the new world where you could have the possibility to worship the god you believed in without being persecuted and the possiblity to avoid repression an endemic problem in Europe in those days.

All this was remembered during the second world war when many jewish people crossed the Atlantic to settle in America. 

With the use of medias, religion is more seen as a business, pastor entrepreneurs earn money and are quite happy to be on a show where they are more seen as superstars than representatives of their gods. They are quite good at marketing, and acting. They even create franchises like Willow Creek Church in Illinois which has 4 700 member churches around the world.

Some major figures appeared then such as Martin Luther King a black pastor fighting for black rights, Mitt Romney a mormon who in 2012 ran for the Republican nomination for the presidential elections.

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